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Spatial Analysis of Geographical and Geological Factors’ Impact on Amphibious Landing Operation at Gallipoly, 1915

During 1915, British-French forces at Gallipoly peninsula undertook a very risky amphibious landing operation, with goal to allow British-French Navy an entrance into Sea of Marmara, to overtake Istanbul, and to force Ottoman Empire out of armed conflict. The aim of this paper is, based on GIS spatial analysis, to show the impact of geological and geographical factors on military operation at Gallipoly peninsula. Due to the unfavorable impact of land on dynamics of disembarkment, unit movement, fast formation of bridgehead depth, logistic support and fortification on reached lines, British-French forces suffered great losses of available combat potential. On the other hand, Turkish forces were on dominant and well-fortified locations, on more favorable geological surface for fortification, whilst safety factor of relief and road communication between key terrain held by Turkish forces and depth of Turkish territory allowed covert, fast arrival and deployment of Turkish reserve forces, as well as fast and sufficient logistic support.


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